InFertility treatment refers to the medication followed in order to help those having problems bearing a child. So, artificial medical assistance is taken to aid them in the process. Since Fertility Treatment is used to cure conditions of infertility in patients, it is also referred to as 'Infertility Treatment' (Fertility Treatment) or the treatment to treat infertility. This kind of artificial medical assistance to aid reproductive functions is increasingly becoming popular day by day.
What is infertility ?
Infertility refers to the inability to naturally conceive a child. It is a problem where a couple faces problems in conceiving, after a year of regular sexual intercourse without using any birth control methods. This problem may be in either man or woman, or both. It also refers to a condition of a woman when she is unable to carry a pregnancy to its full term.
Causes of Infertility
In a normal reproduction process proper interaction between the female and male reproductive system is required. Following are the causes of infertility (both men and women):
- Sperm causes
- Ovulation problems
- Tubal causes
- Age-related factors
- Unexplained infertility
Infertility Treatment Options
It is considered when the female has irregular ovulation. Medication is started for regulating the ovulation cycle and improving the egg quality. Commonly used are Clomiphene Citrate, HMG, purified and recombinant FSH.
IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination): A method where processed semen is placed directly in the uterus with the help of a catheter.
IVF (Invitro Fertilization): IVF is the fertilization of an ovum outside the body and then transferringe fertilized ovum (embryo) into the uterus.
ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): In this process, a single sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an egg for fertilization.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration): A surgical sperm harvesting technique.
Embryo Freezing Excess (Surplus): Embryos are Cryo-preserved at ultra low temperatures for years to be used subsequently.
Assisted Hatching: A process of promoting hatching or implantation of embryos, unable to escape intact from the zona pellucida.
Semen/Sperm freezing: Semen/Sperm are stored frozen at ultra low temperatures for long duration, useful in various conditions.
Types of Infertility
Following are the types of Infertility:
Primary Infertility: - It is that condition where a couple has not conceived a pregnancy after at least a year of unprotected intercourse.
Secondary Infertility: - It is a condition where the couple has conceived or carried a pregnancy to term after naturally successfully conceiving one or more children.
Sub-fertility: - Here infertility that is complete, that is, there are chances of pregnancy, but these chances get reduced each month. It is a state of a less than normal capacity for reproduction.
Male Infertility: - It is a condition of infertility in males that refers to the absence of healthy sperms in the semen in order to meet ovum.
Female Infertility: - It is a state of infertility in females. It is important that all the reproductive organs in a female are in a perfect shape.
Fertility isn't just a woman's problem
If the facts are to be believed, in up to a one third of cases, the cause of not falling pregnant is because of the male partner sperm disorders. Thus, it is extremely important that if there is any difficulty in conceiving, then a proper amount of testing of both the partners is required.
Dignosis for Fertility :
For Male: Along with the necessary basic blood and urine examination, semen analysis is also done.
For Female: Routine tests like Rubella IgG levels, HIV , CBC, FBS, urine routine, TSH, / FSH / LH / Prolactin (Day 2 of the cycle), VDRL, Hepatitis B, and Blood grouping are done.
Following tests are done according to the doctor's advice:
- Serum FSH
- Serum LH
- Serum PRL
- Serum TSH
The other procedures are:
HSG (Hysterosalpingogram): Here an X-ray picture of the uterus (Hystero) and Fallopian tubes (Salpingo) is taken.
Trans-vaginal Ultra Sonogram: Undertaken for checking any abnormalities in the uterus, tubes and ovaries.
Laproscopic Hysteroscopy: Done to look into the of the interior aspects of the uterus with an endoscope.
Laparoscopy: Done for visualization of the peritoneal cavity using an endoscope.
Depending on the results, the course of treatment is decided.
Infertility treatments are known as Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), which are formulated for increasing the number of eggs or sperm, bringing them together, and improving the chances of pregnancy. These treatments depend on the nature of the problem.